Monthly Archives: July 2015

Another day in Sydney

When  one of the sessions finished early yesterday morning, I popped into the Nicholson Museum in the Quadrangle of Sydney University.  Sir Charles Nicholson was the Speaker of the Legislative Council and one of the founders and early provosts of the University of Sydney. In 1856 he embarked on a three-year Grand Tour of Europe where he purchased a huge tranche of artefacts which he shipped back to the University.  He also arranged for the manufacture of the stained glass windows for the Grand Hall, which were the topic of conversation between Nicholson and Queen Victoria and Price Albert.  Prince Albert  questioned the historical authenticity of some of the windows and Queen Victoria expressed interest in seeing some images of Sydney,

The exhibition at the museum at the moment is called “50 Objects, 50 Stories” and it’s fantastic- one of the quirkiest exhibitions I’ve seen in a long time. 

When you peep into the (free) museum, you think that it’s going to be full of Greek urns and marbles. But when you look more closely it’s just as much an exploration of the concept of provenance, as of the objects themselves, all presented in a cheeky riot of type fonts and puns.

So we see some medieval lead figures that turn out to be fakes created by William Smith (Billy) and Charles Eaton (Charlie) in 1857 to sate the demand of eager dealers: a bold but not illegal entrepreneurial enterprise. There’s a terracotta figure that can be appreciated as either a big-hipped female figure or, alternatively, a phallus that was excavated at a site that yielded hundreds of the objects, yet nearby sites contained nothing similar.  Another fake perhaps? A ‘kitten’ found in Tutankhamun’s tomb that was x-rayed by University of Sydney graduate Sir Grafton Eliot Smith in his role as Professor of Anatomy at Cairo ended up being a bag of bones and not a cat at all.

There’s the unexpected artefacts: a rather mundane 19th century tableaux of English Royal Seals turned out to contain, underneath, the bones of the Duke of Burgundy (1371) that were looted during the French Revolution.   There’s tales of perilous sea journeys conveying the artefacts, where Lord Hamilton, the cuckolded husband of Emma Hamilton was delighted to find that a case of greek urns that he thought lost on the bottom of the ocean, turned out to have been sent in an earlier ship.

There’s a fragment of Homer’s Iliad, procured and donated by the 1937 Professor of Greek at Sydney University, Enoch Powell (yes, THAT Enoch Powell).

There are artefacts that have no stories at all, and the panel makes reference to the opposite situation in Edmund de Waal’s book The Hare with Amber Eyes where the artefact is lost, but the stories remain.  There are suggestions of pretty dodgy collecting practices: a Palaeolithic stone axe handle that was just handed over for the museum as part of the imperial desire to ‘spread things around’;  the example of the US Ambassador to Cyprus in 1872 who sent home 35,573 artefacts to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Then there are the female figures that were transferred to Nicholson  out of India immediately after the Indian Independence Act.  The display notes the conflict between archaeologists, who insist on rigour and provenance, and connoisseurs who emphasize beauty and financial value.

This is a fantastic display, curated by Michael Turner, and not an electronic screen in sight!

AHA Conference 7 July 2015

Keynote Address: The ‘Crisis in the Humanities’ in Comparative Perspective- Peter Mandler

A beautiful crisp winter morning to start the conference.  The Keynote Address was given by Peter Mandler, Professor of Modern Cultural History and Bailey College Lecturer in History at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge.  Titled ‘’The ‘Crisis in the Humanities’ in Comparative Perspective”, and replete with graphs and statistics,  it was an unusual opening address.  Confining himself to examining  recruitment to undergraduate degrees in US, UK and Australia , he argued that the “crisis in the humanities” has been a familiar trope since the 1950s, and that in fact, the sciences have fared even worse, without being characterized as being ‘in crisis’.  Instead, by broadening the definition of ‘the humanities’, the proportion of students in the humanities has remained remarkably stable despite the democratising shift to mass education and the corresponding dramatic expansion of subjects on offer.  Former polytechnics and technical colleges have been integrated into higher education, and they are not (despite their names) necessarily about technology but the humanities.  He noted that during the 1970s higher education was no longer seen as an “investment good” in terms of human capital theory, but instead as a “consumption good”: that people wanted to go to university.  This is still the case, despite lobbyists calling in the media for increased STEM uptake (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) as an economic growth measure.  The humanities are not ‘in crisis’, he argues, any more than the sciences are: the story is neither declinist nor triumphalist.


History and Fiction

The first concurrent session for the day was History and Fiction. Bronwyn Lowe discussed Enid Blyton, who was wildly successful with young readers (particularly girls) in 1940s and 1950s Australia, but also widely disparaged by teachers, librarians and some parents for her repetitive  and formulaic plots, two-dimensional characters and more recently, on class and gender lines.  The BBC banned Enid Blyton’s books  as early as the 1930s, and even though not actually banned in some Australian children’s libraries until the 1960s, they were viewed as being ‘not the right sort of book’.  Some of this concern revolved around the quantity of Blyton and that some children would read nothing else- a similar complaint perhaps to the Harry Potter phenomenon (although by now the heat has gone out of the argument as there is more relief that children are reading something in these screen-based times.) By looking at reading surveys and interviews conducted by academics over the years, children’s pages in the newspapers at the time, autobiographies and nostalgic memoirs, she noted that Blyton books often became a currency in their own right among children swapping and collecting them, and that the concerns by parents about their deleterious effects were largely misplaced.

Christopher Bond then examined Pat Barker’s Regeneration trilogy, which has been criticized by some military historians for historical inaccuracy and inauthenticity by its melding of fictional characters with the historical figures of  the poets Wilfred Owen and Sigfried Sassoon and Dr Rivers.  He referenced Hayden White, who speaks of the way that historians deploy ‘emplotment of the past’ in the writing of their histories- a phrase I hadn’t heard before, but find interesting.   Although Tolstoy also combined historical and fictional characters in War and Peace, he has not been subjected to the same criticisms as Barker has, possibly because of his iconic status and detailed descriptions of military strategy- but also, he ventured, because Barker is a woman.  He noted that Paul Fussell, the venerated military historian, excluded all war literature written by women and citizens, and yet Stephen Crane, whose Red Bad of Courage has been highly acclaimed, was never a soldier.


Colonial Elections

After lunch I attended the Colonial Elections session. Chris Holdridge examined elections in Van Diemens Land, where the anti-transportation league was trying to flood the Legislative Council with their representatives.  Elections as public performances were an expression of political will, even though the majority of men were not enfranchised to vote.  He examined poems, posters and squibs in the 1851 and 1856 elections where the question of ‘character’ and convictism were deployed against emancipists. In particular, he spoke of the 1856 mayoral election and showed a hand-drawn election pamphlet which attacked mayoral candidate ex-convict William Thompson for his former ‘career’ as a flogger of his fellow convicts. Somehow this pamphlet nestled amongst the ephemera at the Mitchell Library- the stuff of historian goosebumps!

Naomi Parkinson compared the siting of  Jamaican and New South Wales colonial elections. In Jamaica, elections were held in the policeable space of the courthouse, with non-voters excluded, whereas  New South Wales held strongly to the English practice of out-door hustings where anyone could attend and question the nominees. Although women could not vote in either colony, electoral proceedings conducted outside made it possible for them to be spectators from windows or carriages.

Finally, Howard Le Couteur  used newspaper sources to explore the case of the Chinese candidate James Chiam who contested and won, in a landslide, a by-election for the Maryborough Municipal Council in 1861.  In his election speech (delivered in Chinese and translated for listeners)  Chiam identified himself as a naturalized settler who spent his money here (as distinct from remitting it to China) and identified with the working men of Maryborough, who were wary of Chiam’s business-men opponents.  Although Chiam only acted as alderman for a few months (possibly because he recognized the limitations of his poor English), his election demonstrates an overlooked example of  Chinese agency in local politics.

Foundational Religious Histories: Local and Global, Past and Present

The final concurrent session of the day was part of the Religious History Association strand and I found it quite different to the other sessions. Mark Jennings spoke on Pentecostal Charismatic Christianity (PCC) as a manifestation and possible influence on late modernity. PCC is an ecstatic religion which sees the act speaking in tongues as proof of God. It makes up 23% of the population of the United States and is the fastest growing religion in France, with Hillsong and similar manifestations in Australia. I was surprised that the movement dates its origin only back to the turn of the twentieth century, with the American narrative placing its origins in 1901 in Kansas and 1906 in the Apostolic Faith Church in Los Angeles.  However, he argues that it can be seen as a broad set of movements, emerging in other places in the world at much the same time e.g. the Welsh revival of 1904, India.  He suggests that PCC and late modernity exist in symbiosis with each other, particularly through the influence of rock-and-roll.

The second speaker was Bernard Doherty who spoke on ‘Spooks and Scientologists: Secrecy, Surveillance and Subversion in Cold War Australia 1954-1983’ which traversed almost fifty years of interaction between Scientology and ASIO.  Since 2000 the National Archives of Australia have been releasing the ASIO files relating to Scientology going back to the mid-1950s.  It was a broad-ranging paper, encompassing Whitlam, Lionel Murphy, and the Ananda Marga and the Hilton bombing.  He suggested that ASIO gave low priority to Scientology (and likewise to its critics, most particularly ALP publicity officer Phillip Bennett Wearne) but Scientology’s belief that it was under surveillance became a self-fulfilling prophesy. It has, however, kept the question of ‘who watches the watchers?’ alive ( an even more salient question today given recent events).

Keynote Address:  In the Beginning: The Origins and Impact of the Alliance between Church and State in the Delivery of Welfare Services in Australia

This rather unusual and confronting session was followed by the Keynote Address for the Religious History Association given by Shurlee Swain. This was far more familiar territory for me, as she traced the nature of church/state relations in the delivery of welfare services.  Right from the start, Australia eschewed the Poor Law approach of England: either people had suffered under it themselves as bounty immigrants shovelled out of England, or because they did not want to pay taxes.  Hence Australia opted from the start for a subscriber charity model which was ostensibly non-sectarian but was, in reality, implicitly Protestant. During the second half of the 19th century there was increased Catholic provision and the proliferation of mission-based evangelical services.  By the 1960s the church/state partnership was beginning to fracture with declining church attendance and the increasing diversity of voices that had the ear of government.  However, in the 21st century, as the post-welfare state wound back government action, competitive tendering changed the relationship between church and state again into one of mutual dependence.  She then moved on to the current child-abuse commissions, noting that in the UK (think Jimmy Saville, politicians etc)  there is not the same narrow focus on the churches that we have in Australia. However, she suggests, there is an undercurrent that is beginning to question the charitable tax treatment of church organizations, while faith-based organizations are finding themselves providing a mission to their own professional staff. Strange times indeed, explored well in a terrific presentation.

Note to presenters: These are my impressions, gleaned from my rather inadequate notes at the end of a long day. If I have misrepresented what you said or included inaccuracies, please contact me at the email address in the ‘About’ section.

A day in Sydney

I’m up in Sydney for the rest of the week, attending the Australian Historical Society conference being held at the University of Sydney. A frugal little soul, I had booked the cheapest room in my 4.5 star hotel (indeed, it was cheaper than many more humble lodgings) and was expecting a cupboard-sized room but it’s fine.  I’m located close to Central railway station with a bus station at the doorstep and about a 20 minute walk from the uni.  The building was previously used as a post office, and prior to that was the site for the Sydney Benevolent Asylum.


I was able to check in early, then headed off for the Art Galley of New South Wales.  I passed the Lindt cafe. Even though journalists emphasized how central the location was, and the proximity of the Channel Seven building, I hadn’t really registered it.


Of course, as a historian of colonial New South Wales, I made a little pilgrimage to the Domain and the early buildings that surround it, and paid my respects to the statues of Lachlan Macquarie, a man I admired back in 1973 when I did Australian history for my VCE and who, more than forty years later and approaching a Ph D, I still admire.

Then off to the Art Gallery.  You know, I don’t think that I’ve ever been to the Art Gallery here- I keep getting it mixed up with the State Library, which of course I have frequented on several occasions.

There’s usually a  statue created by Mr Resident Judge’s grandfather  in the major Australian galleries: the sculptor Charles Web Gilbert.  The Art Gallery of NSW  had a cluster of bronzes- a positive swarm of nine Mackennals, with just one Web Gilbert and an Eva Benson.

'The Dutch Cap' by Charles Web Gilbert. An unfortunate name for a sculpture, perhaps.

‘The Dutch Cap’ by Charles Web Gilbert. An unfortunate name for a sculpture, perhaps.

Plenty of Mackennals.

Plenty of Mackennals.

Quite a few of the pieces had resonances with books I’ve read.

It was getting late- I need to find a bus to get to Sydney University. Thousands of buses, but where was the bus stop? I must admit that the whooshing, belching buses gave me a new appreciation for Melbourne trams. The opening reception was held at the Great Hall, a sandstone building resonant of pomp and tradition, with portraits of Great Male Chancellors (and as far as I could see, two Great Women Chancellors) on the walls.

IMG_20150706_183402a IMG_20150706_183408a

So let the conference begin!

A Medieval Modern Symposium

I’ve just spent a delightful two days at the National Gallery of Victoria at a symposium to support the current exhibition Medieval Moderns- the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, which closes on 12 July 2015. If you haven’t seen the exhibition- do!

Alison Inglis from the University of Melbourne, the convenor of the symposium opened with ‘An Introduction to Pre-Raphaelitism in Australia’. She highlighted the depth and breadth of the NGV collection, which was bolstered initially by post-Gold Rush and Marvellous Melbourne prosperity, but continually enriched and supplemented by recent acquisitions. She emphasized the familial, commercial and institutional networks between artists and collectors in Australia and Britain.

These familial networks were demonstrated in Isobel Crombie’s presentation on the photographer Julia Margaret Cameron. She lived close by to Tennyson, whose work was so influential on the Pre-Raphaelites, and on occasion she consciously modelled her own photographs on the paintings of the period. Her use of blurring in her photographs was perceived as a means by which the emotional ‘essence’ of the subject was captured. Amanda Dunsmore followed with a presentation on William Morris and his influence on art and design, with a particular emphasis of ceramics- several of which have been deaccessioned from the NGV’s collection over the years. Shane Carmody, now at the University of Melbourne took a slightly different direction, speaking on Sydney Carlyle Cockerell , the London advisor to the Felton Bequest between 1936-9 who clashed with the Menzies govt appointee over his attempt to procure the Holy Grail Tapestries designed by Burne-Jones.

The second session focussed on Pre-Raphaelite artists in Australia. Although Thomas Woolner is best known for his work in England, he first came to attention when he emigrated to the Victorian gold-fields with Edward La Trobe Bateman and Bernhard Smith. Caroline Clemente’s paper emphasized the artistic networks that revolved around the Howitt family and their connections with the gold-rush elite. This was followed by two papers on Edward La Trobe Bateman, and particularly his work on Plenty Station, Yallambie. There’s an excellent blog written by the current owner of Yallambie homestead, which is sited on the original Plenty Station. Lucy Ellem’s paper looked particularly at Bateman’s treatment of the garden, and the evidence of acclimatization techniques revealed through these sketches

I really enjoyed Bronwyn Hughes’ paper on William Holman Hunt’s famous picture ‘The Light of the World’.


The painting was an imperial exhibition phenomenon, which spawned thousands of reproductions and, in Australia, two hundred stained glass representations. John Payne from the NGV directed our attention to the frames used by the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood which eschewed the fashion for attempting to replicate metal frames and instead used gilded wood, often in a very simple design.

Day Two of the symposium required some rejigging, and commenced with an enthusiastic young scholar, Nancy Langham Hooper, who presented on John Rogers Herbert, the RA artist who specialized in biblical (and particularly Old Testament) works- a large example of which (Moses Bringing Down the Tables of the Law) is undergoing conservation treatment at the NGV currently. She made a convincing case for the links between Herbert and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, even though the connections are not at first apparent.


Conservation work currently being conducted in public view on the Moses painting, second floor NGV.

The rescheduled second session saw Juliet Peers speaking on Bernhard Smith, who travelled to Victoria with Woolner and Bateman, but is rarely associated with PRB influence in Australia. Unlike many of the other artists, Smith had to work for a living as a gold fields commissioner and judge and he took his sketchbook with him on his travels. Vivien Gaston followed with a presentation on William Dyce’s sketch of Prince Albert the Prince of Wales as a young child for his mother, Queen Victoria, and the detective work in tracking down the other sketches made as part of this series.

The session after lunch examined two paintings that are hung in the current exhibition: Princeps’ painting The Flight of Jane Shore, the royal mistress to Edward IV who was publicly shamed by Richard III, and Burne-Jones’ portrait of Baronne Madeleine Deslandes, a pensive and quiet portrait that in no way reflected this wild and flamboyant leader of a salon that attracted artists, poets, writers (including Oscar Wilde) and composers in Paris.

The final papers of the symposium examined Rupert Bunny , particularly his work on female saints which has been eclipsed by his Parisian-themed work, and Christian Waller. This final paper was again of particular interest to me, living as close as I do to Fairy Hills where the Wallers lived (in Dr Blake’s house from the television series no less!) and Grace Carroll’s paper focussed on the house as an expression of Pre-Raphaelite sensibilities that also came through in the artwork of both Christian and Napier Waller.

So, all in all a wonderful well-organized symposium, with excellent speakers and a wealth of information and insight. Even better, it was free: an act of generosity from both the NGV and University of Melbourne and the speakers themselves.

Hours of fun! Victorian Places

There’s a website created as a joint venture between Monash University and the University of Queensland called Victorian Places.

You can see it at

It was commenced in the mid-1990s at the National Centre for Australian Studies at  Monash University and has been updated using a template that was developed for Queensland Places by the University of Queensland.

Victorian Places aims to provide an historical and current assessment of all settlements in Victoria and addresses both metropolitan and regional growth issues in a readily useable fashion. It includes over 1600 entries (headwords) on Victorian settlements that now have or once had populations of 200 or more at any census. The entries include cities, towns, villages, suburbs and shires both old and new. It includes suburbs not only for Melbourne but for regional cities as well. The entries weave the story of place using extracts from gazetteers and handbooks and are illustrated with a wide range of images including historical postcards, recent photographs and tourist promotional material.

The ‘About Us’ section of the website includes the qualification that the website focusses on white settlement. They provide references for indigenous history of the landscape, and note in the entries themselves the Registered Aboriginal Parties throughout Victoria and attempt to comment on indigenous/settler relations when the sources allow.

So many places! 1600 of them!  I’ve whiled away an hour or two here, looking up places large and small. It’s fascinating to have the census information to watch the rise and decline (and sometimes rise again) of locations.